THE MASSACRE OF AGUAS BLANCAS: THE REPRESSION AGAINST THE OCSS
The state of Guerrero, located at the south of Mexican Republic, is jointly with Chiapas and Oaxaca one of the three states in Mexico which needs priority attention respect the violations on human rights occurred there. Guerrero is a state with a 11% of indigenous population, from which the 31% is only monolingual; speakers of nahua, mixteco, amuzgo and tlapaneco, principally. The great touristic development, from which Guerrero is principally known, hides its economic, political, social, educational and justice problems which are really a matter of concern, because such problems affects the most basic rights related to the human being.
From the seventies up to this date, the repression has taken the life of several victims. During the repressive campaign against the armed movements emerged in such period, multiple murders, imprisonments had occurred, and also it does the enforced disappearance of more than 600 individuals, for whom today familiars yet demand their presentation to the Mexican authorities.
THE ORGANIZATION OF FARMERS FROM THE SOUTH MOUNTAIN (OCSS, IN SPANISH) After the signature of the NAFTA in several states of the Mexican Republic appeared demonstrations in different levels, as the irruption of the EZLN and several organization of farmers in the national level, which understood this agreement as a menace to their productions. On January 14, 1194 several farmers met and agreed to conform the Organization of Farmers From the South Mountain (OCSS, in Spanish language), in order to better manage their demands of public services, improvement of housing conditions, introduction of water, drainage and electric services, as well as educations, roads in their towns, and incentives for the productions and commercialization of their farm products, looking also for the respect of their political and social rights, and a cease in the repression against farmers. The OCSS is an independent organization which groups more than five thousands of farmers from different towns of the State of Guerrero, which had historically boost common claims for dignity and respect of the communities of farmers and which also aims to defend and protect the natural resources of such communities. The OCSS is constituted by poor farmers from the municipalities of Coyuca de Benitez, Atoyac de Alvarez, La Union, Coahuayutla, Jose Azueta, Petatlán and Benito Juarez, among others. From its constitution up to this date, the members of the OCSS, as well as their familiars, have been victims of serious violations to their human rights. When EPR appeared in 1996 in Aguas Blancas, (one year after the killing of 17 farmers), the Mexican Government immediately related the organization of farmers with the guerrilla army and initiated the persecution of their members. The principal leaders of the OCSS: Benigno Guzman, Marino Sanchez, Hilario Mesino, Gabino Luna, Benito Bahena and Telesforo Luna, whom where repressed a long several years by the Government of the State of Guerrero where one more time again repressed. Eugenio Aguirre, Ismael Mena, Salome Aguirre, Alejo Aguirre, Gabriel Guzman, Faustino Valente, Valente Zamora, Florente Rafael Ventura, Regulo Resendiz, Gilberto Romero, Pedro Leonardo, Placido Leonardo, Pasito Hernandez, Daniel Lopez Castañeda, Emiliano Estevez and others, they are now the leaders of the OCSS in their communities. June 16, 1994. Jose Guadalupe Guzman Martinez, brother of Benigno Guzman Martinez was arrested and tortured, charged with murder. Four months later he was released because of the disappearance of the supposed evidence. July 15, 1994. Ismael Mena Alvarez and Eugenio Aguirre Bahena were executed in Tepetixtla. They were shot from behind and they received coup de grace in the face at midnight, just a block from the OCSS premises, after they came out from a meeting where they agreed to participate in a demonstration which would take place in Acapulco the next day. In February and April, 1995 the OCSS carried out several demonstrations in opposition against the forest clearing and duly organized, they stopped trucks charged with wood. The members of the PRI they also organize themselves in this region, but in order to pillage the forests and common assets of the community. In the middle of this political situation, Gilberto Romero Vazquez was disappeared on May 24, 1995. September 6, 1996. 200 elements of the Federal and State Judicial Police came in to Tepetixtla. During several days, they raid so many homes and stole money during the raids. Two brothers of Jose Ascencio were arrested. They were tortured during two days and police demanded them to hand guns out, forcing them to sign a false statement. Their sole crime was to be brothers of a leader of the OCSS, they do not participate in the organization. On October 21, more than 200 soldiers arrived to Tepetixtla. On September 15 they arrested and tortured Antonio Barragan Garrasco, member of the OCSS, whom once released escaped from the community. On October 20 [OV1] they killed our comrades Bernardo and Evaristo Nava Hernandez, 19 and 16 years old. On November 8 six members of the OCSS were arrested and tortured while they were working in their farms. They were released the next day. On November 9 Faustino Valente Castro was arrested and tortured during three days in order to force him to confess that the OCSS has an armed group. Then he was transferred to Acapulco and he was imprisoned for three months. The same day, court officers raided several homes, asking for guns. On December 12, Fortino De La Cruz Sonora and Concepcion Casimiro Adame, members of the OCSS were killed with machetes. Fortino with sixty years old was beheaded. His head was not found. Hilario Mesino Acosta and Benigno Guzman Martinez were arrested in 1996 and 1997 respectively, resting as political prisoners charged with being part of the guerrilla. They were released but their families were persecuted by the police, the army and armed paramilitary groups from those years. Ranferi Hernandez.
THE MASSACRE OF AGUAS BLANCAS June 23, 1995. After 28 years the massacre of Aguas Blancas, committed by the State Police in Guerrero, is still without a satisfactory resolution. 17 members of the OCSS were killed and 23 were injured. This criminal action took place in the municipality of Coyuca de Benitez, y the Costa Grande area, state of Guerrero. The facts occurred when at least 400 officers of the Police in the State, led by Major Manuel Moreno Gonzalez, shot over a political meeting organized to claim for the appearance of the member of the OCSS, Gilberto Romero Vazquez, who was disappeared. The balance: 17 murdered and 21 [OV2] injured. Seventeen homes in mourning, more than 40 orphans. People killed in Aguas Blancas were Tomas Porfirio Rondin, Amado Sanchez Gil, Fabian Gallardo Garcia, Francisco Rogel Gervasio, Heliodoro Lopez Vargas, Paz Hernandez Gonzalez, Daniel Lopez Castañeda, Victorio Flores Balanzar, Climaco Martinez Reza, Mario Pineda Infante, Anacleto Ahuehueteco Coyote, Jose Rebolledo Gallardo, Gregorio Analco Tabares, Efrain Vargas Sabayo, Florente Rafael Ventura, Simplicio Martinez Reza and Francisco Blanco Muñoz. The farmers Carmelo Bernal Flores, Serafin Farfan Martinez, Juan Pastrana Ramirez, Santos Galeana Santiago, Felipe Sanchez Rodriguez, Marcos Carranza, Anibal Pastrana Gallardo, Venicio Godinez Silva, Andres Bernal, Luciano Salmeron, Pedro Jimenez, Antonio Acalqueño Santanero, Andres Sanchez Rodriguez, Apolonio Romero, Apolinar Ojendis Contreras, Bernardo Carbajal, Eustolia Mayo Blanco, Rodolfo Carranza, Prospero Hernandez Lozano, Norberto Pastrana Gallardo, Antonia Reyes Garcia, Mauro Hernandez Lozano, Domingo Bernal Flores and Sulpicio Rogel Meza were injured. Twenty two of them were injured by gun machines. The Supreme Court of Justice of the Mexican Republic sanctioned the massacre of the 17 farmers, members of the OCSS. The Supreme Court introduced for first time in the legal and political frame of Mexico a discussion about the truth. The Mexican authorities, according to the verdict of the Supreme Court, had the tendency to deliver “manipulated and incomplete information conditioned to the interests of so many groups and persons involved”, impeding that society knows the truth of facts as the massacre of Aguas Blancas; important facts and events for the public life in the country. According to the 11 judges of the court, the authorities with their actions in this case incorporated to the public life a “tricking culture, the manipulation and hiding of the truth, instead confronting the truth and tale efficient and opportune actions in order to find it and disclose it to the citizens”. After twenty years of this verdict, the issues discussed by the Supreme Court of Justice have been considerably extended and at the same time, the practices of “fabrication” and opacity condemned in such verdict have not ceased. New episodes have been added to the massacre of Aguas Blancas, and although the legal frame in Mexico have expressly acknowledged a right to the truth for the victims and the society –defined as the right to know the facts which constitute the crime and the violations of their human rights. The identity of the responsible parties, the circumstances which propitiated the commitment of the crime- there are several claims related to this right, similar to those that the Court condemned years ago: manipulation and hiding of information, opacity. The Recommendation of the CNDH - 104/95. On August 14, 1995 this commission sent to the Governor of the State of Guerrero a recommendation related to the facts occurred on June 28, 1995 in Aguas Blancas, Municipality of Coyuca de Benitez, State of Guerrero and also related to the investigation carried out by local authorities. The CNDH accredited that on June 28, 1995 the Human Rights of 17 members of the OCSS were violated. They were killed intentionally (in a summary execution operation) by the Judicial State Police ant the Mobile Police Forces; that several farmers were injured and the preliminary investigation TAB/J/3208/95 an its correspondent disaggregation was carried out with several irregularities that, if they are not to be corrected, will have repercussions in the clarification of the facts, given that although the investigation was ordered before the Judge Third of the First Instance of the Criminal Branch of the Judicial District of Tabares, there was the possibility, high possibility, that officers of the Government of the State of Guerrero intervened in the events of that day, June 28. THE CASE IN THE OAS
Statement issued by the CIDH on July 24, 1996 at the end of the visit in loco carried out in Mexico.
Verdict of April 23, 1996 of the Supreme Court of Justice of the Mexican Republic, case N° 3/96, page 98.
CIDH – OAS: REPORT N° 49/97 CASE 11.520 TOMAS PORFIRIO RONDIN. “AGUAS BLANCAS, MEXICO” February 18, 1998. CHECK THE FOLLOW-UP REPORT.
These investigations determined the responsibility of lawyers Ruben Figueroa Alcocer, Governor whit undefined license; Jose Ruben Robles Catalan, former General Secretaru of Government; Antonio Alcocer Salazar, former General Attorney of Justice; Rodolfo Sotomayor Espino, former First Deputy Attorney of Justice; Gustavo Olea Godoy, former Director of the Judicial Police; Rosendo Armijo de los Santos, former Deputy Secretary of Protectiona and Transit; Adrian Vega Cornejo, former Special Prosecutor; and Esteban Mendoza Ramos, Adrian Vega Cornejo Research Prosecutor and former General Director of Government, respectively; all of them officers of the State of Guerrero. Francisca Flores Rizo, agent of the Attorney General Office in Coyuca pointed out the members of the OCSS and the police then did the killing.
SUBSEQUENT EXECUTIONS AGAINST MEMBERS OF THE OCSS
Miguel Angel Mesinos, son of Hilario, was also persecuted and murdered. In 1994 the Army arrested him in the town El Escorpion where he comes from and then he was tortured. He was released and then he went out of his town to Zihuatanejo, to have some labor for a period of time. On January 19, 2003 he was arrested again, charged with an homicide ocurred in the handcraft market of Acapulco, but he was cleared of the charges on November 18 in that year. Two years later, on September 18, 2005, he was murdered.
Rocio Mesino who assumed the leadership of the OCSS once his father was threatened with death, received also in several occasions any kind of intimidations and accusations of being part of the armed struggle. She always was very active in the defense of the rights of the farmers of the southern mountain of the state of Guerrero. She participated in several blockades in the federal road Acapulco – Zihuatanejo and in the taking of the municipal offices of the Costa Grande, always in pacific manners in order to demand the government the accomplishment of the claims presented by the organization from the beginning in 1994. 19/10/2013 Rocio Mesino was leader of the OCSS, in the town of Mezcaltepec, municipality of Atoyac de Alvarez, in the region of Costa Grande. She was also councilor in the municipality of Atoyac (2009-2012) in the State of Guerrero. (MEX 006 / 1013 / OBS 086 Murder Mexico October 22, 2013). Executed around 13:00 hours in the town of Mezcaltepec by two men who traveled in ATV. The body of Mrs. Mesinos received at least four gunshots while she was carrying out activities of supervision and support to the communities affected by the storms of September in that year. At the very time of the murder, she was supervising the reconstruction of a bridge which was affected by the rain and excommunicated several communities in the State.
The Human Rights Committee of the UN also presented a report in which emphasizes the lack of investigation and punishment for the responsible parties of the violations of human rights in Mexico, principally in cases of torture, forced disappearance and murder. The impunity is the queen of injustice.
The murder of Rocio Mesinos is part of this black story of institutional violence and organized crime, aggressions to the press, to defenders of the human rights and leaders of social movements. It is a serious crisis of human rights and the impunity of the authorities, which are the principal responsible parties of this situation.
Laws proposed and approved will be only innocuous initiatives if there is no investigation and punishment against the responsible parties. The Government of Peña Nieto is not so different from the government of Felipe Calderon. Peña Nieto is famous because of repression and criminalization of opposition and social protest.
For the moment, the following claims are being considered:
The economic basement of our people is the agriculture activities, the land; and without sufficient support, the production for the diary maintenance cannot be guaranteed.
An important part of the populations of this region do not have drainage and hygienic services. We demand the construction of such facilities.
We also demand the constructions of streets and roads with a good quality, resistant to the rains, which excommunicates communities, condemning them to the isolation.
Recover the Shelter for the Orphans of the Guerra Sucia Period.
A project to complete the monument for the martyrs of Aguas Blancas.
From the events occurred on June 28, people initiated the construction of a monument to remember the repressive use of the forces of the State against the struggle of our organization. They build an obelisk which has not been completed but, we desire to do so not so far.
There are no policies searching to improve the production, employment, housing, education, health, public security, protection and better use of the natural resources, for roads, communications or services. The social movements have to use radical ways to make government look for their claims. And for radical actions, the government responds with imprisonment, disappearance and death.
 Guerra sucia is the name which is used in Mexico to give name to the period –related to the Cold War in the global context- in which the Mexican government –following the policies of the CIA and the U.S.A. government- repressed and massacred a lot of populations and organizations in the state of Guerrero, not necessary related to the guerrilla organizations of Lucio Cabañas. Extra judiciary executions, massacres and forced disappearances were the regular strategies carried out by the army or by paramilitary organizations in this years.
THE PRISONERS OF THE OCSS
After all these years of struggle, death, imprisonment and other forms of repression, the OCSS continues working in an important part of the low mountain of Guerrero. Notwithstanding the problems emerged by several strike groups in this area we are still struggling, renewing our forces, our faith in a better future.
The leader explained that on Aguust 27 they were in Altlacholaya and they received information that Eduardo Gallo pretends to involve the three members of the OCSS in the kidnapping of his daughter.
He says that they know that Eduardo Gallo was a federal judicial police officer and also spokesperson of the state, and that he has used his influences and contacts to harass the members of the OCSS who are imprisoned.
[OV1]Ojo: Acá no queda claro si son culpables o no.
Situación de las Normales(*documento adjunto) Se presentara las diferentes represiones y hostigamiento que ha tenido cada Normal, de acuerdo al fenómeno que se ha dado con las diferentes Normales se presume que se busca su extinción. Analizar en el caso de las normales, si se tipifica el delito de Genocidio.